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Anthelmintic
 
  • Oxzol
Oxzol DOWNLOAD BROCHURE
Latest broad spectrum anthelmintic

Formulation :
Bolus contains Oxfendazole I.P.(Vet) 2200 mg
Liquid contains Oxfendazole I.P.(Vet ) 2.265 % w/v

Oxfendazole is a benzimidazole anthelmintic, effective against most of the parasites of livestock & poultry.

Salient features
  • Oxzol is economical and effective against major endo-parasites in domestic animals.
  • Oxzol is ovicidal, larvicidal and wormicidal in action.
  • Oxzol is well tolerated by the domestic and wild animals in general and free of side effects at therapeutic doses.
  • Oxzol is safe in young, sick and debilitated animals.
  • Oxzol is safe in pregnancy at therapeutic doses.
  • Safety margin 10 times of therapeutic doses.
  • Slow absorption from gastrointestinal tract prolongs its action.

Mode of action
The drug acts on parasites by interfering with their energy – generating metabolism. Oxfendazole is inhibitor of fumerate reductase. Blockage of the fumerate reductase step inhibits generation of mitochondrial energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). In the absence of usable energy, the parasite dies.

Oxzol

Pharmacokinetics
The peak plasma level occurs in 6-30 hours after dosing with oxfendazole. The plasma levels are increased and anthelmintic activity is enhanced when the drug is retained in the rumen rather than passed directly into the abomasums via closure of oesophageal groove. Oxfendazole is excreted primarily through urine of monogastric animals and through faeces (65%) of ruminants

Anthelmintic spectrum
Horses -
The drug is effective against adult form of large strongyles, small strongyles, mature Oxyuris equi, small pin worm (Probstmayria vivipara) and Trichostrongylus axeif of horses. Ascarids (Parascaris equorum) and immature Oxyuris.

Cattle and sheep
The drug is effective for lung worm infection caused by Dictyocaulus All the major gastrointestinal parasites of ruminants (Haemonchus, Ostertagia, Trchostrongylus, Marshallagia, Cooperia, Nematodirus, Bunostomum, Chabertia, Oesophagostomum, Strongyloides). The adult form of these parasites is most effectively expelled but immature stages are also eliminated. Oxfendazole is effective against whipworms.

Swine
The drug is effective against swine ascarids (sexually mature adult forms), stomach worms (Hyostrongylus), nodular worms (Oesophagostomum) and Strongyloides. Swine lung worms (Metastrongylus)

Poultry
Ascaridia galli, Capillaria, Cecal worms (Heterakis gallinarum). Currently, there are no approved drugs for treatment of Capillaria, Tape or Cecal worms in poultry. As a result, the drug oxfendazole is used extra-label in drinking water when prescribed and monitored by a licensed veterinarian.

Ovicidal activity
Studies on the culturability of parasite eggs in feces following treatment of animals with oxfendazole suggest a strong ovicidal property.The drug has been found to be ovicidal for eggs of ruminants Trichostrongylids, swine stomach worms (Hyostrogylus) chicken ascarids and canine and human hookworms and whipworms.

Safety and toxicity
Oxfendazole is well tolerated by domestic and wild animals in general. Oxfendazole is free of side effects at therapeutic doses even when administered to young, sick or debilitated animals. In ruminants and horses oxfendazole does not cause detectable toxic effect at a single administration of 10 times the recommended dose. Sheep tolerate 20 times the therapeutic dose.

Contraindications
Oxfendazole should not be administered simultaneously with bromsalan flukicides (oxyclozanide). This combination has produced some abortions in cattle and deaths in sheep.

Dosage and administration
The drug is administered orally.
Horse 10 mg per kg b.wt. or 1 ml per 2.25 kg b.wt.
Cattle 4.5 mg per kg b.wt or 1 ml per 4.50 kg b.wt.
Sheep 5 mg per kg b.wt or 1 ml per 4.50 kg b.wt.
Swine 3 mg per kg b.wt. or 1 ml per 5.50 kg b.wt.
or
4.5 mg per kg b.wt for control of Hyostrongylus and Oesophagostomum spp.
Dog 11.3 mg per kg. b.wt. or 1 ml per 2.00 kg b.wt.
For 3 consequent days.
Poultry 10 mg per kg b.wt. or 1 ml per 2.25 kg b.wt.

Presentation
Bolus 1 bolus strip
Liquid 15 ml, 100 ml and 500 ml.

Oxzol v/s Fenbendazole
Oxfendazole is a sulphoxide identical to the sulphoxide metabolite of fenbendazole, both are known to be anthelmintically active and metabolically interconvertible. Much of fenbendazole’s anthelmintic activity is attributed to oxfendazole, the latter being more potent.

Oxzol v/s Piperazine (poultry)
Oxfendazole:The drug acts on parasites by interfering with their energy – generating metabolism. Oxfendazole is inhibitor of fumerate reductase. Blockage of the fumerate reductase step inhibits generation of mitochondrial energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP).In the absence of usable energy, the parasite dies.
Piperazine: It blocks transmission by hyperpolarizing nerve membranes at the neuromuscular junction and induces flaccid paralysis. Mature worms are more susceptible to the action of peperazine than the younger stages. In extremely heavy ascarid infections, treatment with piperazine may immobilize veritable masses of worms and cause an intestinal impaction.
Oxfendazole: It is also effective against cecal worm Heterakis gallinarum.
Piperazine: The cecal worm (Heterakis gallinarum) apparently is not susceptible to piperazine.

References:
Oxfendazole single dose @ 4.5 mg/kg body weight is highly efficacious against strongyles in buffalo calves.
Neelesh Sharma1, Vijay Pandey2, S.K. Gupta and S.R. Upadhyay
Division of Veterinary Clinical Medicine & Jurisprudence, Faculty of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Sher-E-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Jammu.


Efficacy of oxfendazole against naturally acquired gastrointestinal nematode infestations in buffaloes in Egypt.
A 100% reduction in faecal egg counts was obtained at the 4·5 mg/kg level.
S. A. Michael1, A. H. El Refaii1 and A. J. Higgins2
The Department of Parasitology, Animal Health Research Institute, Dokki, Cairo, Arab Republic of Egypt.
The Wellcome Foundation Ltd., Berkhamsted, Hertfordshire, UK


Oxfendazole effective in removing all developmental stages of naturally acquired Dictyocaulus viviparus from 15-week-old calves (2.5 mg/kg) and D.filaria from sheep (5.0 mg / kg). (lung worms)
Chalmers K. New Zealand Veterinary Journal, Volume 27, Numbers 1-2,1 January 1979, pp. 8-13(6)

Efficacy of oxfendazol agaist natural infestation of nematodes and cestodes in sheep in Egypt.
A 100 per cent clearance was recorded for all parasites with the exception of T ovis which were markedly reduced in number.
SA Michael, AH Refaii, WH Mansour, MK Selim, and AJ Higgins
The Veterinary Record, Vol 104, Issue 15, 338-340
Copyright © 1979 by British Veterinary Association


Oxfendazole was 100% effective against third, fourth, early fifth, and adult stages of the Haemonchus contortus worms at dosage level 5 mg/kg and 10mg /kg body weight.
Kistner TP, Wyse D Aust Vet J. 1978 Oct;54(10):469-70.

Anthelmintic activity of oxfendazole in pigs.
A dose rate of 4.5 mg oxfendazole per kg body-weight give practical control of Hyostrongylus and Oesophagostomum species in pigs.
PA Kingsbury, DT Rowlands, and JF Reid The Veterinary Record, Vol 108, Issue 1, 10-11 Copyright © 1981 by British Veterinary Association

Oxfendazole provides, for the first time, a practical, effective, inexpensive, and single-dose therapy for porcine cysticercosis.
Armando E. Gonzales, Hector H. Garcia, Robert H. Gilman, Cesar M. Gavidia, Victor C. W. Tsang, Teresa Bernal, Nestor Falcon, Martha Romero AND Maria T. Lopez-Urbina
Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins University School of Hygiene and Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland; Division of Parasitic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 54(4), 1996, pp. 391-394


Br Vet J. 1989 Sep-Oct;145(5):458-61.
Anticestodal action of oxfendazole on Raillietina tetragona in experimentally infected chickens.
Nurelhuda IE, Elowni EE, Hassan T.
Abstract
Oxfendazole was tested against Raillietina tetragona in experimentally infected chickens using single oral doses of 20, 10, 7.5, 5, and 2.5 mg/kg body weight. The minimal dose of the drug which produced 100% efficacy against immature worms was 10 mg/kg whereas the same effect on the mature parasite was obtained with 7.5 mg/kg. Doses lower than these significantly reduce worm burdens. The compound appears to be safe for chickens and a dose of 20 mg/kg (twice the recommended dose) produced no untoward clinical reactions.
PMID: 2790437 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Parasite. 2000 Sep;7(3):221-6.
Efficacy of oxfendazole for the treatment of giardiosis in dogs. Experiments in dog breeding kennels.
Villeneuve V, Beugnet F, Bourdoiseau G.
Abstract
Giardiosis is one of the most frequent parasites of dogs and cats. Since several years, the treatment is based on the use of metronidazole. A coproscopic study in four dog kennels was conducted to demonstrate, at a significant level, the efficacy of oxfendazole (Dolthène, Merial). At the posology of 11.3 mg/kg each day during three days (D1, D2 and D3), no dogs eliminated Giardia cysts and all dogs are clinically cured. The importance of hygienic measures is underlined. In kennels 1 and 2 where hygienic conditions were poor, dogs reexcreted cysts again after treatment. In kennels where the boxes were disinfected, no dogs, treated with 22.6 or 11.3 mg/kg, reexcreted Giardia cysts.
PMID: 11031759 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]