PRODUCT RANGE  
 
 
Select the country of your choice
 
INDIA NEPAL
India Nepal
   
BANGLADESH PHILIPPINES
Bangladesh Philippines
   
OMAN BHUTAN
Oman Bhutan
Antimicrobials & Antibiotics
 
  Back »
Antibacterial & Antibiotics
 
  • Amikin
  • Cephatin
  • Curacin OZ
  • Curacin TZ
  • Enrovet
  • Furazone
  • Livocin
  • Sulphatrim
  • Vetran-LA
Amikin DOWNLOAD BROCHURE
Broad spectrum antibacterial
Controls livestock and poultry infections without immunosuppressant effect


Compostion
Each ml contains :
Amikacin sulphate I.P. 250mg

Amikacin
Systematic (IUPAC) name ( international Union Of Pure and Applied Chemistry) (2S)-4-amino-N-[(2S,3S,4R,5S)-5-amino-2-[(2S,3R,4S,5S,6R)-4-amino-3,5-dihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxan-2-yl]oxy-4-[(2R,3R,4S,5R,6R)-6-(aminomethyl)-3,4,5-trihydroxy- oxan-2-yl]oxy-3-hydroxy-cyclohexyl]-2-hydroxy-butanamide

Salient features
  • Control infections without immunosupresant effect.
  • Broad spectrum antibacterial having decisive bactericidal effect.
  • It is resistant to bacterial enzymes that inactivate other aminoglycosides.
  • Achieves predictable results in the treatment of uterine infections and repeat breeding.
  • Ensures excellent results in respiratory and urogenital tract infections.
  • It is broad spectrum antibacterial, effective against gentamycin resistant infections.
  • It is the most reliable aminoglycoside for serious aerobic gram negative bacillary infections.

Amikin
Amikacin is the newest of the aminoglycosides The spectrum of antimicrobial activity of Amikacin is the broadest of the group, and because of its unique resistance to the aminoglycoside-inactivating enzymes it has a special role in cases where gentamycin resistant micro-organisms are prevalent.

Mechanism of action:
The aminoglycoside are rapidly bactericidal, they act directly on the bacterial ribosome, where they inhibit protein synthesis and decrease the fidelity of translation of the genetic code.

Resistance
Amikacin has high resistance against bacterial inactivation. It resists attacks by most bacterial inactivating enzymes.

Absorption:
Absorption from IM injection sites is rapid and nearly complete (<90% availability). Blood levels usually peak within 30-90 min after IM administration.

Pharmacokinetics
The aminoglycosides are not metabolized in the body. They are eliminated unchanged in the urine by glomerular filtration, with 80-90% of administered drug recoverable from the urine within 24 hr of IM administration. Glomerular filtration rates differ between species and are often less in neonates, which may explain the greater sensitivity to aminoglycosides in newborn foals and puppies.Elimination depends on cardiovascular and renal function, age, volume of distribution, fever, and several other factors.

The aminoglycosides have relatively short plasma half-lives (~1 hr in carnivores and 2-3 hr in herbivores). About 90% of the injected drug is excreted unchanged through the kidneys

Distribution
The aminoglycosides distribute into the extracellular fluid space with minimal penetration into most tissues except the kidneys (where they accumulate in the renal cortex) and the endolymph of the inner ear. The distribution volume of aminoglycosides can increase in animals with congestive heart failure or ascites. Neonates also have a large extracellular fluid compartment relative to body weight. Although aminoglycosides are not appreciably bound to plasma proteins (usually <20%), they do attain therapeutic concentrations in the synovial, pleural, and even peritoneal fluids, especially if inflammation is present. However, effective levels are not reached in CSF, ocular fluids, milk, intestinal fluids, or prostatic secretions. Fetal tissue and amniotic fluid concentrations are very low in most species.

Untoward effects :
Ototoxicity: Both vestibular & auditory disfunction can follow the administration of any of the aminoglycoside.
Nephrotoxicity: Very high concentrations of aminoglycoside accumulate in the renal cortex and this correlates with the potential of these drugs to cause nephrotoxicity.

Although amikacin, like other aminoglycosides, is potentially nephrotoxic, ototoxic and neurotoxic, parenteral (intravenous) administration of amikacin sulfate twice daily at dosages of up to 10 mg/lb for 15 consecutive days in horses resulted in no clinical, laboratory or histopathologic evidence of toxicity.

Interactions:
Enhanced nephrotoxicity may become evident with concurrent administration of aminoglycosides and other potentially nephrotoxic agents. Neuromuscular blockade is more likely when aminoglycosides are administered at the same time as skeletal muscle relaxants and gas anesthetics. Aminoglycoside ototoxicity is enhanced by the loop-acting diuretics, especially furosemide. Cardiovascular depression may be aggravated by aminoglycosides when administered to animals under halothane anesthesia. High concentrations of carbenicillin, ticarcillin, and piperacillin inactivate aminoglycosides both in vitro and in vivo in the presence of renal failure.

Safety
Amikacin Solution (Amikacin Sulfate Solution) is non-irritating to equine endometrial tissue when infused into the uterus as directed (see “Dosage and Administration”). In laboratory animals as well as equine studies, the drug was generally found not to be irritating when injected intravenously, subcutaneously or intramuscularly.

Intrauterine infusion of 2 grams of Amikacin Solution (Amikacin Sulfate Solution) 8 hours prior to breeding by natural service did not impair fertility in mares. Therefore, mares should not be bred for at least 8 hours following uterine infusion.

Therapeutic uses:
Amikacin has become the preffered drug where resistance to gentamycin has become a significant problem. Because of its unique resistance to Aminoglycoside inactivating enzymes, Amikacin is active against the vast majority of aerobic gram negative bacilli. This includes most strains of Serratia, Proteus and Pseudmonas aeruginosa. It is active against nearly all strains of Klebsiella, Enterobacter and E. Coli that are resistant to Gentamycin & Tobramycin.

Indications
Cattle, Horse & Camel
  Repeat breeding
Rispiratory tract & Umblical infections caused by E. Coli & Salmonella
Mastitis. Metritis & systemic infections
Enteritis.
Pig, Sheep, Goat, Calf & Dog
  Respiratory & Urogenital Tract infections
Secondary bacterial infections associated with viral disease like Canine distemper, Haemorrhagic gastroentritis, Proteus infections.
Post surgical care
Calf Scours
Poultry
  Chronic respiratory disease (CRD) Bronchitis, E. Coli, Salmonella infections & prevention of early chick mortality.


Administration & dosages:
For susceptible infections
Cattle, Sheep, Goat , Pig and Dog 5-12 mg/kg of body weight I M for 3-5 days.
Horses 4.4 - 6.6 mg / kg of body weight I M or I V bid – tid, if severe infection.
Poultry 20 mg / kg b.wt. by SC injection.

For uterine infusion in mares
Amikacin Solution (Amikacin Sulfate Solution) is indicated for the treatment of uterine infections (endometritis, metritis and pyometra), caused by susceptible organisms including Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas sp, and Klebsiella sp. For treatment of uterine infections 2 grams (8 ml) of Amikin (Amikacin Sulfate Solution), mixed with 200 ml 0.9% Sodium Chloride sterile solution or distilled water infused aseptically into the uterus daily for three consecutive days, has been found to be the most efficacious.

Presentation
30 ml & 100 ml vials
Cephatin DOWNLOAD BROCHURE
Cefoperazone & Sulbactam

Composition:
Each vial contains:
Cefoperazone Sodium I.P. 3.0 g
eqv. to Cefoperazone
Sulbactam sodium U.S.P. 1.5g
eqv. to anhydrous sulbactam

Cefoperazone: Cefoperazone sodium is a semi- synthetic third generation cephalosporin contains a piperazine side chain giving it antipseudomonal activity. It is one of few cephalosporin antibiotic effective in treating pseudomonal bacterial infections which are otherwise resistant to these antibiotics.

Sublactam: Sulbactam sodium is a penicillanic acid sulfone with ß–Lactamase (an enzyme produced by bacteria that destroys the antibiotics) inhibitory properties. Sulbactam is a molecule which is given in combination with ß–Lactam antibiotics. It has weak antibacterial activity but is chemically stable ß–Lactamase inhibitor that synergistically increases the activity of ß–Lactam antibiotics against ß–Lactamase producing bacteria. Sulbactam can therefore enhance the activity of penicillin & cephalosporin against many resistant strains of bacteria.

Salient features
  • Cefoperazone-sulbactam fixed ratio 2:1 maximized the Cefoperazone spectrum activity.
  • Cefoperazone-sulbactam combination exhibited broad spectrum activity (antibiotic sensitivity 94.4%)
  • Cefoperazone-sulbactam therapy demonstrates enhanced efficacy against the Staphylococci, Pseudomonads and Enterobactriaceae.

Cephatin
  • Cefoperazone has a braod spectrum bactericidal action with increased activity against Pseudomonas spp.
  • Cefoperazone is relatively stable to hydrolysis to ß–Lactamases produced by gram–negative bacteria.
  • Sulbactam protects Cefoperazone from ß–Lactamases produced by staphylococci & Entero bacteriaceae.
  • Drug can be used safely during pregnancy.
  • The combination of sulbactam & Cefoperazone demonstrates synergistic activity (up to fourfold reduction and MIC for the combination versus those for each component).

Antibacterial spectrum :
Cefoperazone has a bactericidal action & broad spectrum activity. With increased activity against pseudomonas spp. It is highly stable to hydrolysis by most beta lactamases. Cefoperazone has antibacterial activity similar to that of ceftazidime. Activity particularly against enterobacteriaceae & bacteroides spp. has been enhanced in the presence of the ß–lactamase inhibitor sulbactam.

Cefoperazone possesses broad spectrum activity against most of the gram-positive, gram-negative and anaerobic bacteria.
  • Gram-positive bacteria-Staphylococcus aureus, Steptococcus agalactiae, S.pneumoniae, S. pyogenes, Enterococcus faecalis.
  • Gram-negative bacteria – Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus spp., Psudomonas aeruginosa, Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter cloacae, and Serratia marcescens, Haemophilus influenza, Neisseria meningitides.
  • Anaerobic organisms: Gram negative bacilli, Gram positive and Gram negative cocci and Gram positive bacilli.

Mechanism of action:
Cefoperazone acts against sensitive organism during the stage of active multiplication by inhibiting biosynthesis of cell wall mucopeptide. The cell walls of bacteria are essential for their normal growth & development. Peptidoglycan is a heteropolymeric component of the cell wall that provides rigid mechanical stability. Sulbactam is an irreversible inhibitor of beta-lactamase; it binds the enzyme & does not allow it to interact with the antibiotic.

ß–Lactam antibiotics produce certain characteristic morphological effects on bacteria :-
  • Bacteria may form long filamentous forms & fail to devide.
  • Growth may take place at the midportion with formation of bulge.
  • Microorganism may swell & then rupture.
  • Stable cell wall deficient bactria may be formed.
  • In general at the lowest effective concentration of ß–lactam antibiotic, cell division is inhibited but elongation continues. As the concentration of antibiotics is increased growth is inhibited, bulges may form, & lysis is then observed.

Pharmacokinetics
Cephalosporins are rapidly absorbed following IM or SC administration. After intramuscular administration peak plasma concentrations have been reported after 1-2 hrs. The plasma half life of Cefoperazone is 2 hrs. (65-97 mcg per ml). Cefoperazone is 82 to 93% bound to plasma proteins. Cefoperazone is weidely distributed in body tissue and fluids. Penetration into the CSF is generally poor; in case of first & second generation ciphalosporins, where as Cefoperazone enters the CSF in sufficient concentration due to greater lipid solubility. It crosses the placenta and low concentration have been detected in milk. Following intravenous administration in cross bred calves, the drug could not be detected in urine upto 24 hrs of administration, indicating its non-renal route of excretion and the major route of elimination of cefoperazone has been reported via bile. Cefoperazone is excreted mainly in the bile resulting in longer half life. The urinary recovery of Cefoperazone under normal conditions is in the range of 3.89% in buffalo calves.

Indications
Livestock
  • Severe respiratory & genitourinary infections.
  • Enteric, urinary tract infections & urinary peritonitis cholecysitic, cholangitis.
  • Bovine mastitis
  • Skin, soft tissue, bone & joint infections.
  • Endometritis
  • Pneumonia in calves,
  • Meningitis

Poultry
  • Septicemia in chicken
  • Infectious bronchitis
  • Ulcerative entritis.
  • Complicated C.R.D. problems & pneumonia
  • Colibacillosis, coryza & fowl cholera

Contra indications
  • Cephatin Inj. is contraindicated in patients with known allergy to penicillin, sulbactam, Cefoperazone or any of the cephalosporin.
  • The drug in horses may be used with caution, as it is contraindicated in herbivores with an expended large bowel.

Dosage & Administration:
Deep IM or IV by intermittent or continuous infusion.
Live stock 10 – 15mg / kg b. wt. for 3 -5 days
Poultry 20 mg / kg b.wt. for 2 -3 days.
or
as directed by the registered veterinary practitioner.
Note: Prepare solution by dissolving the contents of the vial with 10-20 ml sterile water. 20ml sterile water for injection I.P. provided with the pack.

Presentation
4.5 gm vial with 20ml sterile water for injection
3.0 gm vial with 20ml sterile water for injection
 
EXCELLENCE THROUGH INNOVATION
3rd GENERATION CEPHALOSPORIN
CEPHATIN ® Inj.
 
CEPHALOSPORINS: are broad spectrum antibiotics that, are divided into 3 generations.
  1. The first generation cephalosporins:
    (Cefadroxil, Cephalexin, Cephapirin, Cefazolin)
    They are more effective against Gram-positive than Gram-negative bacteria & are susceptible to ß – Lactamases.
  2. The second generation cephalosporin:
    (Cefoxitin & Cefotetan, the Cephamycins)
    They are more active against certain gram-negative bacteria (Hemophilus, Proteus, E. coli, & Klebsiella) than the first generation but less than the third generation & are relatively resistant to ß-lactamases.
  3. The third generation cephalosporins:
    (Cefoperazone, Cefotaxime, Ceftiofur, Ceftazidime & Ceftriaxone)
    They are most effective against Gram-negative bacteria, resistant to ß-lactamases & enter the CSF in sufficient concentration due to greater lipid solubility.
    • This class of drugs was developed for use in specialized situation where antibiotic resistant Gram – negative infections are common & safety is of prime concern.
    • Third generation cephalosporins typically have greater activity against Gram-negative than others.
    • Third generation cephalosporins are active even against some strains of Enterobacter, E. coli, Klebsiella, Proteus & Serratia that are resistant to the first & second generation cephalosporins.
    • Most third generation cephalosporins also have some activity against Pseudomonas spp.
    • The product containing cefoperazone in oil base for intra-mammary infusion is effectively used. The non-irritant properties of cefoperazone plus persistence of therapeutic concentration of the drug in treated quarters for 3-4 milking make this drug very useful for the treatment of bovine mastitis.
 
References:
  • Jones, RN ; Barry, AL; Pacter, RR; Gregory, ww; Thornsberoy C. In Vitro antimicrobial spectrum, occurrence of synergy & recommendations for dilution susceptibility testing concentrations of the Cefoperazone – sulbactam combination. J. Clin Microbiol 1987 September 25 (9) ; 1725-1729, PMCID: PMC 269316.
  • Wilson, CD; Agger, A; Gilbert, GA; Thomsson, CA; Tolling, ST. field trials with cefoperazone in the treatment of bovine clinical mastitis. The veterinary record Vol. 118, issue 1, 17-19 copy right © 1986 by British Veterinary Association.
Curacin OZ DOWNLOAD BROCHURE
A powerful antibacterial and antiprotozoal intrauterine liquid

Composition:
Each 5 ml contains:
Ofloxacin USP 50 mg
Ornidazole 125 mg

Salient features
  • Potent antibacterial, antiprotozoal and effective against anaerobic bacteria.
  • The combination is effective even against ciprofloxacin resistant organisms.
  • Provides multifaceted protection during post parturient uterine infections, dystokia and retained placenta.
  • Significantly 1.7 times prolong action of ornidazole (14.4 hrs.) versus metronidazole (8.4 hrs.)
  • High safety profile and low level of MIC90 of ornidazole as comparable to metronidazole and tinidazole.
  • Right solution to treat stubborn intra-uterine infections causing repeat breeding and abortion.
  • With best tissue penetration and wide distribution.

Ofloxacin:
Ofloxacin is a new generation fluoroquinolone, possess excellent antibacterial activity at very low concentrations and is highly effective against gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. Ofloxacin inhibits bacterial DNA Gyrase, thus preventing the coiling of genetic material which is a pre-requisite for bacterial multiplication. It has good tissue penetration. Plasma binding is 25 % and half-life of plasma elimination is bout 5-8 hrs. Elimination takes place mainly by kidney and 75 to 80 % dose is excreted unchanged in the urine over 24-48 hrs. Less than 5 % is excreted as urine metabolites and 4-8% through faeces.

Curacin OZ

Ornidazole
It has the antimicrobial actions and is used in the treatment of susceptible protozoal infections and also in the treatment of anaerobic bacterial infections. It enters the cell through diffusion and nitro group of drug is reduced anaerobically by oxidoreductase to cytotoxic intermediates that break the DNA strands of bacteria and protozoa resulting in disruption of cellular function which leads to death of organisms. Ornidazole is absorbed from the urino-genital tract rapidly and the peak plasma concentration reaches in 12 hours after the administration of the drug. It is widely distributed in body tissues and fluids including cerebrospinal fluid. Drug is metabolized in liver and excreted through the urine mainly as conjugates and metabolites with small amount in faeces. Bilary excretion also play a role in its elimination from the body.

Indications
  • Repeat breeding, endometrtis and pyometra.
  • Uterine infections due to ciprofloxacin resistant organisms.
  • Abortions due to brucellosis, trichomoniasis, vibriosis, leptospirosis, listeriosis and salmonellosis.
  • Uterine infections due to various aerobic and anaerobic bacteria.

Administration
Intra- uterine

Dosage
In infected uterus: instill 30-60 ml curacin OZ per infected horm daily, till symptoms disappear.

Presentation
60 ml.
Curacin TZ DOWNLOAD BROCHURE
Excellent combination of broad spectrum antibacterial and antiprotozoal.

Each bolus contains
Ciprofloxacin IP 1.5 gm
Tinidazole IP 1.8 gm

Salient features
  • Excellent choice for complicated urinary tract and gastrointestinal tract infections.
  • No effect on anaerobic microflora of gastrointestinal tract (GIT)
  • Low protein binding and wide distribution.
  • Longer action of tinidazole than metronidazole.

Activity
Ciprofloxacin is a synthetic chemotherapeutic agent used to treat severe and life threatening bacterial infections. Ciprofloxacin is commonly referred to as a fluoroquinolone (or quinolone) drug.
Ciprofloxacin has good activity against gram-negative bacteria, including Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. It is used to treat a variety of infections, including skin infections, urinary tract infections, respiratory infections, and wound infections caused by susceptible bacteria.
Tinidazole is a nitroimidazole which has antimicrobial action against microaerophilic (requiring oxygen for growth but a lower concentration that is present in the atmosphere) protozoa- Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica and Trichomonas vaginalis and against anaerobic bacteria.

Curacin TZ

Mechanism of action
Ciprofloxacin work through the inhibition of DNA gyrase, interfering with the supercoiling of bacterial chromosomal material. As a result, these agents are rapidly bactericidal primarily against gram-negative bacteria, mycoplasma, and some grampositive bacteria. Ciprofloxacin is eliminated principally by urinary excretion but non renal clearance may account for about a third of elimination and includes hepatic metabolism.
Tinidazole acts by damaging DNA strands or inhibition of their synthesis. Tinindazole unchanged and metabolites are excreted in the urine and to a lesser extent in the faeces.

Indications
  • Curacin- Tz is indicated for the treatment of a wide variety of infections caused by susceptible gram-positive and gram-negative organisms along with anaerobes and protozoa.
  • Surgical prophylaxis and surgical wound infections
  • Gynaecological infections including prophylaxis in gynaecological surgeries
  • Respiratory Tract infections like lung abscess, aspiration pneumonia, empyema and bronchiectasis
  • ENT infections like chronic sinusitis, chronic suppurative otitis media, cholesteatoma and mastoiditis.
  • Intra-abdominal infections and diarrhoeas of mixed bacterial and protozoal origin.

Adverse effects
There have been no reports of adverse effects when fluoroquinolones were administered to pregnant animals.

Drug interactions
Combinations with other antibiotics neither antagonize nor enhance the microbiologic effects of fluoroquinolones.

Contraindications
contraindicated in animals showing hypersensitivity to the quinolone group or the nitroimidazole group of compounds.

Dosage
Large animals 2 boli per day in divided doses for 3-5 days
Small animals 1 bolus per day for 3-5 days.

Presentation
Srip of 2 boli

Reference:
Because fluoroquinolones do not alter the anaerobic flora of GIT, there usually is minimal distruption of the intestinal bacterial population ( veterinary pharmacology and therapeutics, edited by HR Adams, 8th edition P-911)
ENROVET INJ. DOWNLOAD BROCHURE
Fast healing with economy and safety

Compositon
Each ml contains
Enrofloxacin IP 100 mg


Enrofloxacin
Systematic (IUPAC) name 1-Cyclopropyl-7-(4-ethyl-1-piperazinyl)-6-Fluoro-1, 4-Dihydro-4-Oxo-3-Quinolonecarboxylic Acid.

Salient Features
  • Ensures therapeutic serum level within one hour of injection.
  • Provides effective broad spectrum antibacterial coverage.
  • Provides double benefit of ciprofloxacin and enrofloxacin.
  • Penetrates both intercellular and intracellular infections.
  • Safest drug of choice with no side effects.

Enrofloxacin is currently FDA-(food and drug administration) approved for treatment of individual pets and domestic animals in the United States.

It is a bactericidal agent. The bactericidal activity of enrofloxacin is concentration dependent, with susceptible bacteria cell death occurring within 20-30 minutes of exposure.

Enrovet
Enrofloxacin has demonstrated a significant antibacterial effect for both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria and is active in both stationary and growth phases of bacterial replication.

Mechanism of action
Enrofloxacin is a synthetic chemotherapeutic agent from the class of the fluoroquinolone carboxylic acid derivatives. It has antibacterial activity against majority of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Its mechanism of action is not thoroughly understood, but it is believed to act by inhibiting bacterial DNA-gyrase (a type-II topoisomerase), thereby preventing DNA supercoiling and DNA synthesis.

Activity
Enrofloxacin is effective against a broad spectrum of gram positive and gram negative bacteria including most species of the following: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella, E.coli., Enterobacter, Campylobacter, Shigella, Salmonella, Aeromonas, Haemophillus, Proteus, Yersinia, Serratia, Vibrio, Brucella, Chlamydia, Staphylocci (including some methicillin resistant strains), Mycoplasma, and Mycobacterium.

It is not effective against anaerobic bacteria, and may be variably effective against Streptococcus infections. Enrofloxacin has a similar spectrum of activity as ciprofloxacin but enrofloxacin has been shown to have better bioavailability. With the exception of cerebral spinal fluid, enrofloxacin attains therapeutic levels in most tissues of the body. This makes it a very attractive antibiotic choice for difficult to treat infections, particularly those that need long term antibiotics. Some examples might be osteomyelitis, sinus infections, otitis, difficult soft tissue infections, peritonitis, and pleuritis or pneumonia.

Indications
Respiratory tract infections, acute and chronic mastitis, pyometra, metritis, urogenital infection, haemorrhagic septicemia, black quarter, otitis, salmonellosis, colibacillosis, wooden tongue, gastro-intestinal infections, wound, secondary bacterial infections and fever due to mixed infections.

Drug elimination
Enrofloxacin is eliminated by both renal and hepatic metabolism. Animals with impaired kidney or liver function may need extra monitoring and dose adjustments to prevent excess drug accumulation.

Dogs and Cats
Enrofloxacin is approved for use in dogs and cats. In dogs it may be given intramuscularly or intra-venously. Fluroquinolones including enrofloxacin have been shown to cause articular cartilage abnormalities when the drug is given at high dose levels. The age and breed of the patient should be considered when using enrofloxacin. Large and giant breeds may be more at risk because of a longer period of growth.

Enrofloxacin has been shown to be safe in pregnant dogs and lactating dogs, however because of the problems with articular cartilage it should be avoided unless the benefits clearly outweigh the risk to the puppies.

In immature dogs (less than 8 months of age) damage to joint cartilage can occur. This phenomenon is only seen in growing dogs and does not seem to be a problem in cats. It is preferable not to use this medication in puppies unless the severity of the infection present warrants it.

Horses
Enrofloxacin is well absorbed intravenously. It is generally not used intramuscularly because it is too irritating. Although studies have not been done in the horse, there is the risk of developmental cartilage abnormalities with the fluorquinolone antibiotics. Since horses are expected to be athletes, the use of enrofloxacin in the young horse should be carefully weighed against the potential risk of cartilage abnormality.

Side Effects
  • Enrofloxacin and the other fluroquinolone antibiotics can cause developmental cartilage abnormalities. As a consequence most veterinarians try to avoid these drugs in young animals.
  • Dogs: GI side effects including vomiting, diarrhea, and elevated liver enzymes; Rare CNS signs including ataxia seizures, depression, and anxiety.
  • The use of enrofloxacin can produce crystals in urine. These crystals may show up on a laboratory test thus it is important to be aware of this side effect. Enrofloxacin crystals should not be confused with more clinically relevant struvite, oxalate, or urate crystals
  • Cats: GI side effects include vomiting, diarrhea, anorexia, elevated liver enzymes. CNS signs include ataxia, seizures, depression and aggression. Rare ocular toxicity may occur.
  • Horses: When injectable enrofloxacin is given orally, it can cause mucous membrane irritation, redness, slobbering and swelling.

Overdose
  • A single overdose is unlikely to cause toxicity. In dogs given ten times the normal dose over a period of two weeks, adverse effects were limited to loss of appetite and vomiting.

Precautions
  • Animals with severe kidney or liver problems may need a reduced dose of enrofloxacin. Hydration should be monitored and fluid therapy used in animals at risk for dehydration.
  • Enrofloxacin should be used with caution or avoided in animals at risk for seizures.

Drug Interactions
  • Sucralfate and some antacids may interfere with the absorption of enrofloxacin. These drugs should be administered two hours apart.
  • Enrofloxacin may be used with aminoglycosides, some cephalosporins, and some penicillins in infections where it is warranted based on bacterial sensitivity.
  • Enrofloxacin should not be used with nitrofurantoin, chloramphenicol or rifampin.
  • Probenicid (drugs used for the treatment of gout) blocks the renal excretion of enrofloxacin.
  • Enrofloxacin interferes with the metabolism of the bronchodilators theophylline and aminophylline. If these drugs are to be used at the same time, blood levels should be monitored.

Administration and dosage
  • 5mg of enrofloxacin per kg of body weight or 1ml of injection Enrovet per 20 kg body weight per day for 3-5 days by I/M or I/V route.

Presentation
30 ml and 100 ml.
Furazone DOWNLOAD BROCHURE

Composition
Nitrofurazone IP 0.2 % w/v

Nitrofurazone
Nitrofurazone is bactericidal for most pathogens that commonly causes post partum septic metritis occurs primarily in dairy animals within few days after parturition and is characterized clinically by severe toxaemia and foul smelling uterine discharge with or without retention of fetal membranes. Nitrofurazone is effective against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria like Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus, Escherichia coli, Clostridium spp. and Proteus organisms. Bacterial resistance is not a significant clinical problem with nitrofurazone.

Mechanism of action
Nitrofurazone inhibits several bacterial enzymes, especially those involved in the aerobic and anaerobic degradation of glucose and pyruvate.

Indications
For prevention and treatment of uterine infections following retained placenta, dystokia, prolapse and in abortions caused by various pathogenic organisms. It is also recommended in repeat breeding.

Administration and dosage
Repeat breeding : Instill 30 ml of Furazone solution in uterus 4-48 hours pre and post insemination.
Metritis Instill 30-90 ml of Furazone solution in infected horn for 3-5 days.

Presentation
120 ml

Furazone
Livocin Inj. DOWNLOAD BROCHURE
Levofloxacin 10%

Quinolone The quinolones are a family of synthetic broad spectrum antibiotics. The parent of the group is naldixic acid. The majority of the quinolones in clinical use belong to the subset of Fluoroquinolones, which have a fluorine atom attached the Central ring system typically at the 6-position.

Generations :
Quinolones are divided into generations based on their antibacterial spectrum. The earlier generation agents are in general, more narrow spectrum than the later ones.

1st Generation

cinoxacin, flumequine, nalidixic acid, oxolinic acid piromidic acid, pipemidic acid, resoxacin, enrofloxacin.

2nd Generation
ciprofloxacin, enoxacin, fleroxacin, lomefloxacin, nodifloxacin, norfloxacin, ofloxacin, pefloxacin, rufloxacin

3rd Generation
Balofloxacin, gatifloxacin, grepafloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, pazufloxacin, sparfloxacin, temafloxacin to sufloxacin.

Composition:
Each ml. contains:
Levofloxacin 100 mg

Livocin Inj.

Levofloxacin is a third generation fluoroquinolone antibiotic. It is twice as active as its isomer ofloxacin.

Levofloxacin is one of the so called respiratory quinolones, which are effective against a number of Gram – positive & Gram negative bacteria & specifically against the organisms that cause atypical pneumonia. Because of its broad spectrum action, Levofloxacin is frequently prescribed empirically for a wide range of infections. (such as pneumonia & urinary tract infection) before the causal organism is known.
Levofloxacin is currently the only respiratory quinolone approved by the FDA for the treatment of nosocomial pneumonia.

Why LEVOFLOXACIN
  • It is twice as active as its isomers of first & second generation quinolons.
  • It is one of the so called respiratory Quinolon.
  • It is effective against number of Gram-Negative, Gram-positive, anaerobic bacteria & Mycoplasma.
  • It is currently the only respiratory quinlon approved by the USFDA for the treatment of Pneumonia.
  • Levofloxacin is rapidly and almost completely absorbed following oral administration within an hour of dose. Its rapid absorption & wide distribution is evident in the body fluid & tissues.
  • Peak plasma level is observed in 1 hrs. and drug level above MIC90 in plasma is maintained for more than 12 hrs. indicative of excellent clinical & bacteriological efficacy.

Peack plasma level of levofloxacin attained is 3.4 µg/ml which is 30 folds higher then the MIC 0.1 µg/ml of Levofloxacin.

Susceptible Organism

Gram positive bacteria

Enterococcus faecalis
Staphylococcus aureus, s.epidermidis, S. saprophyticus.
Streptococcus pneumoniac (including multi drug resistant strains MDRSP).
Streptococcus pyogenes.

Gram Negative Bacteria

Enterobacter cloacae
Klebsiella pneumoniae
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Escherichia Coli
Legionella pneuumophila
Serratia marcescens
Haemophilus influenzac, H. Para-influenzac
Moraxella catarohalis
Proteus mirabilis
Compylobacter

Others
Chalamydia pneumonia
Mycoplasma pneumonia
Peptostrepto coccus spp.

Mechanism of Action :
Levofloxacin is the L-isomer of the racemate ofloxacin, a quinolone antimicrobial agent. Levofloxacin is a bactericidal drugs, activily killing bacteria by inhibiting bacterial DNA gyrase or the topoisomerase IV enzyme, thereby inhibiting DNA replication & transcription. Quinolones can enter cells easily via porins & therefore are often used to treat intracellular pathogens such as legionella pneumophila & micoplasma pheumonac. For many Gram – negative bacteria DNA gyrase is the target, where as topoisomerase is the target for many Gram - positive bacteria.

Pharmacokinetics :
Levofloxacin is rapidly & almost completely absorbed following oral administration, with peak plasma concentrations achieved within a hour of a dose. It is distributed into body tissue including the bronchiol mucosa & lungs. Levofloxacin is approximately 30-40% bound to plasma proteins. It is only metabolized to a small degree to inactivate metabolites. The elimination half life of Levofloxacin is 6-8 hrs. it is excreted largely unchanged primarily in urine.

Adverse effects

  • Serious, rare side effects include: Tendon damage known as quinolone induced tendonopathy.
  • Levofloxacin crosses the placenta, and fluorquinalones have shown to cause fetal harm in animals, it is therefore not recommended in pregnant animals.

Safety:
Fluoroquinolones have had a remarkably safety record. Because these drugs do not alter the anaeroabic flora of the gastrointestinal tract, there is minimal disruption of the intestinal bacterial population even when these drugs are administered orally. There have been no reports of cutaneous drug reaction resulting from fluoroquinolones usage in the veterinary.

Indications :
Swine: -
  • Atrophic rhinitis – Swine pneumonia
  • Mchoplosmal pneumonia – Bacterial disease (URTI)
  • Enteric disease (scours) of Swine
  • Swine enzootic pneumonia – Bronchitis
  • Secondary bacterial infections associated with viral disease like Hog cholera, T.G.E., PARS & Swine influenza.

Poultry:-
  • E. Coli infections (Coli bacillosis)
  • Air sac disease – Chronic respiratory disease
  • Salmonellosis (Pullorum disease)
  • Pasturellosis (Fowl Cholera)
  • Necrotic or Ulcerative enteritis
  • Clostridium disease – Bronchitis
  • Fowl typhoid
  • Secondary bacterial infections associated with viral diseases.

Sheep:- Pneumonia – Acute bacterial sinusitis, - Acute & Chromic bronchitis - Skin infections, Urinary tract infections - Acute pylonephritis

Dosage :

7.5mg – 10.0 mg per kg body weight or
1ml Inj. Livocin per 10-15 kg. body weight

Presentation:

100ml. vial

Ref.:
Levofloxacin 10mg/kg. b.wt. after repeated oral administration at 12 hrs. interval for 14 days in layer birds(30-35 weeks old weighing 1.5-2.0 kg.) was found safe.
Levofloxacin could not be deducted in the tissues (liver & skeletal muscles) at 12 hrs. after the last administration. Study indicates that. Levofloxacin is well tolerated following multiple oral administration at 10 mg./kg.body weight in layer birds.
Vinod K.Dumka, Anil K. Srivastava J.Vet.Sci.(2006),7(4),333-337
Sulphatrim Inj. DOWNLOAD BROCHURE
A powerful ally in severe infections Synergistic & bactericidal combination of sulphadoxine and trimethoprim
Sulphatrim injection works even in most difficult conditions.


Composition
Each ml contains
Sulphadoxine IP 200mg
Trimethoprim IP 40mg

Injection sulphatrim is a combination of sulfadoxine (a sulphonamide) and trimethoprim. (a diaminopyrimidine) Trimethoprim when used alone is only bacteriostatic and resistance develops rapidly. However, when combined with suphadoxine, a sequential blockade of microbial enzyme system occurs with bactericidal consequences.

Salient features
  • Injection sulphatrim is bactericidal combination of sulphadoxine and trimethoprim.
  • Injection sulphatrim is effective even in the multi-resistant infections.
  • Injection sulphatrim produce a sequential double blockade of bacterial metabolism, giving a level of activity many times greater than that obtained by either drug alone. (synergistic acion)
  • Injection sulphatrim provides effective antibacterial activity against a wide range of infections caused by Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.
  • Sulfadoxine in particular is the only antibacterial long acting sulfonamide.


Sulphatrim Inj.
Mechanism of action:
Para-amino benzoic acid (PABA) is required by bacteria for their growth and multiplication. The sulphonamides are structural analog (similar) of PABA. In the first step the synthesis of dihydrofolic acid from PABA is blocked by competitive inhibition of PABA with sulphadoxine. In second step trimethoprim block the synthesis of tetrahydrofolic acid from dihydrofolic acid by competitive inhibition of dihydrofolate reductase (bacterial enzyme). Tetrahydrofolic acid is required for the synthesis of the precursor of DNA in bacteria. Blocking both steps of folic acid metabolism leads to an arrest in DNA synthesis and subsequent parasite death. Trimethoprim and sulphadoxine,when each used separately, are bacteriostatic but when used in combination it becomes bactericidal and increases the spectrum of antimicrobial activity.

Pharmacokinetic Features:
Sulphadoxine is readily abosorbed after administration by intramuscular or intravenous route. It is widely distributed throughout the body and into many soft tissues, including the CNS (cerebrospinal fluid) and joints (synovial fluid). High protein binding markedly increases the half life of the drug.

Trimethoprim is readily absorbed from parentral injection sites; effective antibacterial concentrations are reached in less than 1 hr, and peak levels in ~4 hr. Trimethoprim diffuses extensively into tissues and body fluids. Tissue concentrations are often higher than the corresponding plasma levels, especially in lungs, liver, and kidneys. About 30-60% of trimethoprim is bound to plasma proteins.. Trimethoprim is largely excreted in the urine by glomerular filtration and tubular secretion. A substantial amount may also be found in the feces. The plasma half-life of trimethoprim is quite prolonged in most species; effective levels may be maintained for more than 12 hr.

Antimicrobial activity
Sulphatrim injection provides effective antibacterial activity against a wide range of infections caused by Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Sulphatrim injection has shown antibacterial activity against the following organisms.

Very sensitive organisms: Escherichia coli, Bacillus anthracis, Clostridium spp, Pasteurella spp, Shigella spp, Haemophilus influenzae, Salmonella spp, Streptococcus zooepidemicus, Proteus mirabilis, Vibrio spp.

Sensitive organisms: Streptococcus viridans, Klebsiella spp, Brucella spp, Proteus spp, Enterococci spp, Actinomyces, Staphylococcus aureus (including penicillinase-producing organisms), Corynebacterium spp, Bordetella spp, Neisseria spp.

Moderately sensitive organisms: Enterobacter aereogenes, Nocardia spp

Indications - systemic infections, mastitis, reproductive tract infections, respiratory infections, gastrointestinal tract infections, skin and soft tissue infections, post surgical infections.

Sulphatrim injection may be used in cattle and swine where potent systemic antibacterial action against a wide range of sensitive organisms is required.

Cattle
Sulphatrim injection is indicated in cattle for the treatment of:
Alimentary tract infections: Primarily enteric and septicaemic colibacillosis and salmonellosis.
Respiratory tract infections: Bacterial pneumonias including bovine pneumonic pasteurellosis (shipping fever).
Other infections: Infectious pododermatitis (footrot, foul in the foot) and septicaemias.

Swine
Sulphatrim injection is indicated in swine for the treatment of:
Respiratory tract infections: Bacterial pneumonias.
Alimentary tract infections: Colibacillosis and post-weaning scours.
Other infections: Mastitis-metritis-agalactia syndrome of sows (MMA) and bacterial arthritis.

Side Effects and Toxicity:
Side effects due to the potentiated sulfonamides are quite rare, although adverse reactions to the sulfonamide components still occur. Up to 10 times the recommended dose of trimethoprim has been given with no adverse effects.

Contraindications
Sulphatrim injection should not be used in cattle or swine showing marked liver parenchymal damage or blood dyscrasias(disorders of the cellular elements of the blood), nor in those with history of sulphonamide sensitivity

Sulphatrim injection Cautions
With intravenous therapy generally, and sulphonamides in particular, hypersensitivity reactions can occur and should be appropriately treated.
Temporary local, irritating swellings are encountered occasionally after intramuscular injection of Sulphatrim injection
Injections should not be given by routes other than those recommended.

Dosage And Administration
Sulphatrim injection should be administered at a dose rate of 1 ml per 10-15 kg bodyweight daily.
In piglets weighing less than 4.5 kg, do not exceed a dose of 0.5 ml.
Injection sulphatrim should be given by slow intravenous route in horse and dog. In other animals deep intramuscular route is preferred except in acute infective conditions when slow intravenous administration is recommended.
Repeat the same dose after 48 hours if required.

Pharmaceutical Precautions
Do not freeze.
Protect from light.

Presentation
Available in 10 ml & 30ml. vials.
Vetran – LA DOWNLOAD BROCHURE
Broad spectrum chemotherapeutic to overcome systemic, gastrointestinal, respiratory and genital infections.

Composition
Each bolus contains
Trimethoprim IP 200 mg
Sulphadiazine IP 1 gm

Trimethoprim potentiates the antimicrobial activity of sulfonamides to produce a remarkable synergistic effect so that antimicrobial efficiency can be obtained with very low levels of the drug combination.
Trimethoprim when used alone is only bacteriostatic and resistance develops rapidly. However, when combined with suphadiazine, a sequential blockade of microbial enzyme system occurs with bactericidal consequences.

Salient features
  • Vetran LA is bactericidal combination of sulphadizine and trimethoprim.
  • Vetran LA is effective even in the multi-resistant infections.
  • Vetran LA produce a sequential double blockade of bacterial metabolism, giving a level of activity many times greater than that obtained by either drug alone. (synergistic action)
  • Vetran LA provides effective antibacterial activity against a wide range of infections caused by Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.

Mechanism of action:
Para-amino benzoic acid (PABA) is required by bacteria for their growth and multiplication. The sulphonamides are structural analog (similar) of PABA. In the first step the synthesis of dihydrofolic acid from PABA is blocked by competitive inhibition of PABA with sulphadiazine. In second step trimethoprim block

Vetran – LA
the synthesis of tetrahydrofolic acid from dihydrofolic acid by competitive inhibition of dihydrofolate reductase (bacterial enzyme). Tetrahydrofolic acid is required for the synthesis of the precursor of DNA in bacteria. Blocking both steps of folic acid metabolism leads to an arrest in DNA synthesis and subsequent parasite death. Trimethoprim and sulphadiazine, when each used separately, are bacteriostatic but when used in combination it becomes bactericidal and increases the spectrum of antimicrobial activity.

Pharmacokinetics
Following oral administration, trimethoprim/sulfadiazine is rapidly absorbed and widely distributed throughout body tissues.
The sulfadiazine / trimethoprim preparation was administered orally during feeding to 6 male and
6 female pigs. The plasma concentrations of sulfadiazine and trimethoprim increased rapidly followed by a quite rapid decrease from 4 to 12 h after oral administration. The mean values of the absorption half-lives of sulfadiazine and trimethoprim were 0.9-1.6 h and 0.5-0.8 h, respectively, and the corresponding values for the elimination half-lives were 3.1-4.3 h and 3.4-6.0 h, respectively.
Absorption from the ruminoreticulum (in ruminants) is delayed, especially if ruminal stasis is present.
Excretion of trimethoprim/sulfadiazine is chiefly by the kidneys.

Side Effects and Toxicity:
Side effects due to the potentiated sulfonamides are quite rare, although adverse reactions to the sulfonamide components still occur. Up to 10 times the recommended dose of trimethoprim has been given with no adverse effects.

Antibacterial spectrum
Sulfonamide-diaminopyrimidine combinations are active against gram-negative and gram-positive organisms, including Actinomyces, Bordetella, Clostridium, Corynebacterium, Fusobacterium, Haemophilus, Klebsiella, Pasteurella, Proteus, Salmonella, Shigella, and Campylobacter spp, as well as Escherichia coli, streptococci, and staphylococci. Some streptococcal strains are only moderately sensitive, as are Brucella, Erysipelothrix, Nocardia, and Moraxella spp. The antibacterial spectrum does not include Pseudomonas or Mycobacterium spp.

Indications
Live stock
  • Gastrointestinal infections
  • Respiratory infections
  • Genital infections
  • Urinary tract infections
  • Mastitis

Poultry
Chronic respiratory disease (CRD), fowl cholera, coryza, fowl typhoid , coccidiosis.
Contraindication
Trimethoprim / sulfadiazine should not be used in horses showing marked liver parenchymal damage, blood dyscrasias or in those with a history of sulfonamide sensitivity.

Administration and dosage

Trimethoprim / sulphadiazine 15-60 mg / kg body wt.

Vetran –LA
Live stock 1 bolus / 80 kg body wt. twice daily
Intra-uterine 4 bolli daily for 3-5 days.
Poultry 1 bolus for 7.5 kg feed for 5-7 days
Or
1 bolus per 15 lit. of drinking water for 5-7 days.

Vetran–LA can also be administered intra-uterine, with the help of pipette after dissolving the bolus in the distilled water.

Presentation
Strips of 4 bolli